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2 Nicholas Faraclas, Tok Pisin (Creole English), pp. Patrick (eds.), Comparative Creole Syntax (London: Battlebridge, 2007). Smith, Growing up with Tok Pisin: Contact, Creofization and Change in Papua New Guinea's National Language (London: Battlebridge, 2002). I am grateful to Porer Nombo and James Leach for permission to include material from their Reite Plants: An Ethnobotanical Study in Tok Pisin and English (ANU E Press, 2010) in units 3 and 4; to "mangi-nambis" for permission to include his poem 'Em Normal' in the box in unit 6; to Mike Quinn, president of the Morobe Province Agriculture Society, for permission to include copyright material from the society's Morobe Show website in unit 7; and to Madang-based anthropologist Nancy Sullivan for allowing me to use photos from her 'Nineteen Years and Counting in Papua New Guinea' blog entries for October 1 5 & 16, 2009 in unit 7. English will be a help in determining correct pronunciation in these cases. A more colloquial way to make a noun definite is to place ya* after it. It is particularly common when the noun in question has been introduced earlier in the discourse or when what it refers to is visible in the context of situation in which speech is taking place, kar ya 'this/that/these/those car(s) (here/there or previously mentioned) *Since the word (presumably) derives from hia 'here', it is sometimes written ia (but see the footnote in section 7.2). Pikinini i (h)amamas [The child is happy'] but not *(h)amamas pikinini). ' - planti wok 'a lot of/much work' *Also spelled plenti. Mama tru bilong Kapris i bin karim em ['give birth to] we? Risosis: Posta, Drama (environmen) ol Askim na Stori. Fasiliteta i tok welkam long ol patisipen, introducim em yet na tokaut long wanem topik long toktok long en. Taim drama i pinis, Fasiliteta i soim ol posta long ol patisipen na i askim ol long tokaut long wanem samting ol i lukim long posta. HAP 5: BUNGIM TOK Fasiliteta tok klia moa long environmen. Seasons, months and days There are two seasons in Papua New Guinea. The most important studies in these areas are summarized in two volumes by Paul Sillitoe which provide a readable introduction to PNG cultures that does not presuppose extensive background in anthropological theory: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Melanesia: Culture and Tradition (CUP, 1989) and Social Change in Melanesia: Development and History (CUP, 2000).

Among my teachers, Catherine Callaghan and George Landon, both formerly of the Department of Linguistics at Ohio State University, deserve thanks. Words of non-English origin often (but not always) have stress on the next-to-the-last syllable. bin [bin] 'past tense marker') The pronunciation of TP words according to their English counterparts (e.g. wanpis [wanpis] 'alone' ( Gavman bai bairn husaft saplaia sapos yu givim ol invois blong yu igo inap arere biong bisnls long dei 11* DISEMBA 2009. 'Her son is just a wanderer, but she herself is a person of importance. If a person is strongly associated with a particular quality, this can be indicated by using bilong. Repetiton of ol before both modifier and noun can also be found. Planim bek liklik bus we yu ken kisim ol diwai blong mekim haus, prut blong kaikai, diwai blong mekim gaden wantaim, Eksampol: stik blong yam, bin, banis blong mekim gaden, ol marasin blong pies blong em. Reading B Here is the text of a poster created by B. The Michie family's Papua New Guinea website also has some photos of bilums (michie.net/pnginfo/bilums.html) and kundu drums (michie.net/pnginfo/ kundus.html) .My greatest debt of gratitude goes the many Papua New Guineans who have patiently answered what must have seemed like ridiculously naive questions about Tok Pisin grammar, vocabulary and culture, often tacked on to emails about quite different topics. 5.1 Coordination Independent clauses can be strung together by putting one of the coordinating conjunctions na 'and', o 'or' or tasol* 'but/however' between them. The conjunction is always placed at the beginning of the subordinate clause. Bihain long Fasiliteta i mekim tok klia long dispela topik, em tok tenkyu long ol patisipen long pinisim lesen blong dispela dei. PAPUA NIU GINI IGAT RIS CORAL RIP SISTEM INSAIT LONG WOL. Reading C These instructions were sent to the leaders of traditional dance groups taking part in the 2008 Morobe Show competition. (Note that underlined words in the text are spelled incorrectly.) balus 'airplane; dove, pigeon' daunbilo 'below' bilas 'traditional dress' diwai 'wood, tree' hambak 'fool around noisily; boast; show off' kago 'supplies; cargo; luggage' pasim 'stop' pikinini 'child' singsing 'traditional dance/festival' skelim 'portion out' spak 'drunk' stretim 'arrange' tok save 'message, notice' tumbuna 'ancestors' wantok 'people who share the same language' wanwan 'each' TOK SAVE IGO LONG SINGSING GRUPS HUSAIT BAI SINGSING LONG MOROBE SHOW 2008 Tok save igo long olgeta grups ilaik singsing long So, yupela yet yumas stretim pies bilong silip wantaim ol wantok or poroman bilong yupela yet. While watching, try to identify aspects of contemporary PNG culture which are being poked fun at in the film. The last music video returns us to the Autonomous Bougainville Region. v=65s A CUc DPOg&playnext_from-TL&videos=R GBq OZkjlp Y&feature=rec-LGOUT-exp_fresh+div-1r-2-HM and answer the following questions. The English language blogs of reporter Malum Nalu (malumnalu.blogspot.com) and anthropologist Nancy Sullivan (nancysullivan.typepad.com/my_weblog), which contain some stunning photos, are also worth following.I would like to single out Timothy Kwara, Martin Maden, and Josh Meraveka for being especially helpful— tenkyu tru olgeta! Snake asked the beautiful frog, "Will you marry me? Subordinate clauses beginning olsem must follow the main clause to which they are linked. Sapos yumi lus tingting long ol rip bilong na bringim ol kain kain divelopmen olsem fis kanari na ol bikpela gol main we iken bagarapim sol wara long tromoi pipia insait long solwara. So Society ino inap long painim, redim or stretim na bairn hap pies yupela silip Ion taim yu kamap long Lae. Watch the video of the song "Spakman" by Chosen Colors of Bougainville at Textbooks of Tok Pisin Tom Dutton & Dicks Thomas, A New Course in Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin).Unit 2 provides an overview of the independent clause — the basic communicative unit of the grammar of both spoken and written Tok Pisin. Fill in the blanks in the following phrases from the song and translate them into English. Yumi stap na planti tasol yumi mas ['get together] 2. planti yumi no save gut long nait na na inap ['until] i go tulait ['dawn] Pidgin in PNG English Papua New Guinean's attitudes toward Tok Pisin and English no doubt differ with place of residence and level of education.Units 3 (on transitivity and adverbs) and 4 (on situating an utterance in time through modals and TMA markers) examine elements inside the Predicate in detail. It is certain that for many in the villages it is Tok Pisin (or in Papua, Hiri Motu) and not English which serves as the language of "development" and communication with the wider country. [where hanwas is a loan from Tok Pisin] Don Kulick (1992) Language Shift and Cultural Reproduction: Socialization, Self and Syncretism in a Papua New Guinea Village But code switching between Tok Pisin and English is practiced among the highly educated in towns and cities as well.It was told in the Rotokas language and translated into Tok Pisin by Maggie Guria. Na em i bin tingting long painim wanpela man bilong en. " Rokrok i bin sem na em i bin karamapim pes bilong en wantaim han bilongen. Suddenly Frog removed her hands and said quietly, 'Yes". She went to the garden and worked all day in the hot sun. Man bilong Rokrok i no save halivim em long wokim ol wok bilong haus. Long narapela de, taim Snek i bin wok long slip insait long haus, Rokrok i bin paiaim haus. " Another day, while Snake was sleeping in the house, Frog set fire to it. He rushed out of the house, but his legs stayed stuck to the burning posts. What grammatical class do these words come from (i.e. - Kenia i hatwok nogut tru (long) taim mi stap wantaim em. - Bikos/bilong wanem mi gat sik pekpek wara, mi no inap go long opis* tede. biknem 'fame' hevi 'problem; blame; responsibility' pasim 'close' pipia 'rubbish, trash; dirt' tumbuna 'ancestors; descendents' Dispela piksa wanpela ris rip bilong Madang Lagun . Yumi olgeta mas sawe olsem yumi igat gutpela solwara tru we igat planti kain kain pis na ol rip we inogat long ol arapela kantri insait long wol. Olgeta grups bai singsing long wanpela taim tasol long Sunde 19 dei long October long So grain. For those with a basic knowledge of Tok Pisin grammar, Elpie Bajao & Dicks Thomas, Tokpisin Grammar workbook for English Speakers (United States Peace Corps/PNG, 1991) provides drills on various sentence patterns.

Wanpela taim rokrok i bin save stap klostu long wara. Long maunten klostu long wara wanpela snek i save stap. Long dispela taim snek i gat lek olsem ol narapela animal. Snek em i bin wet na wet, na em i bin stat long wokabaut. Snek i bin slip strong tu olsem na em i no bin pilim hat bilong paia. Snake was sound asleep, so he didn't feel the heat of the fire. That's the story of the reason snakes don't have legs. Patterns: You should begin looking for patterns of sound change that link English and Tok Pisin words. (But keep in mind that meaning often shifts slightly in borrowing.) 1 . Patterns: This is also a good time to start looking for grammatical patterns. 'When I stayed with Kenia, she was working really hard. 7 can't go to the office today because I've got diarrhea. 91 Yu mas tingting gut nau, yumi noken pasim ai na bagarapim ol rip na ol animal insait long solwara bilong yumi. Mipela toksave long olgeta grup yumas bung redi long 7.30 kilok long moning taim tambolo long baksait long Si graun long Bumbu Road. The book is freely downloadable at ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/14/cc/0d.pdf).Unit 5 introduces clause linking through coordination, subordination, and imbedding. On the other hand, for highly educated Papua New Guineans Tok Pisin tends to be a language of low prestige and frequent use. Recalling that most Papua New Guineans who use the internet do so in an educataional or office context, it is not surprising that English-Tok Pisin code switching is particularly characteristic of posts on internet message boards and chatrooms.Discussion of the noun, adjective and preposition— topics which present less challenge to the reader/listener— is postponed unit 6. includes the following sections: Reading One or more reading texts open each unit. Taim video wok long pinis mausman i givim wanem samting long longpela man? A 1976 comment by PNG's first Prime Minister, Michael Samore, illustrates this well. Na piksa ya, yu gat namba wan laik long wanem piksa? These examples, taken from demonstrate that code switching can be used both for everyday communication and artistically: Happy Studying I just want to say happy studying to all the upngeans.These boxed texts give a bit of information on how Tok Pisin is actually used and highlight some of the ways in the Melanesian world view differs from the European/American. h may not be pronounced by some speakers (or may be added before any word beginning with a vowel). As an added complication, these words may be quite inconsistently used either with or without the TP plural marker ol. 6.2 Adjectives Those (semantically appropriate*) words which have here been treated as adjectival verbs (V ADJ ) gives rise to true pre-noun modifier adjectives (Adj) through the application of a simple word-formation rule: If the V ADJ is one syllable long, add the Adj-forming ending -pe/a (pronounced /pla/ in casual speech). bairn long* stuakipa 'buy from the storekeeper' bairn long stua 'buy in/at the store' 01 i sori long rabisman. (More adverbs are given in section 3.6.1 above.) insait long haus 'in the house' arere long bus 'beside the forest' namel long raunwara 'in the middle of the lake' bihain long lotu 'after church ' bipo long guria 'before the earthquake ' 83 Ear training G. v=UGc Qo KPrlvs and listen to William Kapris— Family History, flv, the first part of a long police interview with bank robber William Kapris after his dramatic escape from prison and recapture. • Bai ol patisipen i mas save na klia tru long wanem samting em i environmen. Azera, an Austronesian language spoken in Morobe Province, for example, has a base-two system (bits 'one', iruc 'two', iruc da bits 'three', iruc da iruc 'four', iruc da iruc da bits five', etc.), making higher counting somewhat unwieldy. in PNG) hapnait 'early night' nait 'night ' (about 7-11 p.m.) biknait 'middle of the night' hapnait 'just before dawn' *Presumably this refers to the bell which summoned workers on the plantations.Hopefully, they will provide readers not only with a good deal of information, particularly on the Tok Pisin lexicon, but also with new ways of seeing the shared world in which we all live. r is a voiced tap for most speakers, r and / may be in free variation for some speakers. Consonant clusters are broken by the insertion of an epenthetic vowel by some speakers (e.g. ia = /ia/, oi = /oi/, ai = /ai/, au = /au/, aia = /aia/, awa = /aua/. So even within one sports report it is possible to find an alternation between gems, oi gems and ol gem. ' 6.1.5 Vocative case nouns Tok Pisin cannot be said to have a vocative case. If the V ADJ is longer than one syllable, it can be used as a true Adj as it stands. ' 6.2.7 Comparative and superlative of adjectives and adverbs Comparatives are formed according to the following patterns Equality Muruk ya i lonqpela olsem man. The tape was stolen from police files and posted in five parts (numbered 1-6! About the interview one poster on the PNGin USA website wrote: "The Kapis interview.... • Bai ol patisipen i ken save tru long wanem samting i ken bagarapim environmen blong ol. More typical in Papua New Guinea is a base-five system such as that of Tigak, a Papuan language of New Ireland Province, {sakai 'one', pauak 'two', potul 'three', poiat 'four', palmit 'five', palmit sakai 'six', palmit pauak 'seven' ... But Huli, a Papuan language spoken in Southern Highland Province, has a base-15 counting system (where 13, 14 and 15 are also words for parts of the body). 108 109 Appendix: Taking it further You've invested a good deal of time in learning Tok Pisin so probably wish to go further. Papua New Guinea cultures Bronistaw Malinowski, one of the leading anthropologists of the early 20 th century, did fieldwork in the Trobriand Islands.Although each of the readings includes a glossary listing some of the words which may pose problems, you may wish to consult a dictionary as well. Longpela man i raitim nem bilong en long han sut (~ raithan) o long han kais (~ lephan)? One feature that distinguishes PNG English from the other Englishes of the Pacific is a host of borrowings from Tok Pisin. Since Tok Pisin began as— and remains for most of its speakers— a second language, it is not surprising that code switching into the mother tongue occurs (or that the names of some local species of plants and animals may be missing from Tok Pisin). Anyway, that's our toksave and once again, Happy Studying, folks!

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