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Specialized supervision frequently involves specially trained probation and parole officers who manage a caseload of sexual offenders using sex-offender-specific supervision strategies that include special conditions of supervision, multidisciplinary collaboration with a treatment provider, and, if appropriate and permissible, the use of global positioning systems (GPS) and polygraph.
This chapter does not discuss the theoretical and sociological explanations for a given policy or place the research within this context.
The concept of sex offender management has been conceptualized under the construct of a Comprehensive Approach to Sex Offender Management (CASOM) by the Center for Sex Offender Management (CSOM).
The CASOM model (CSOM, 2007) includes the following According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, at yearend 2008 more than 165,000 offenders convicted of rape or sexual assault were in state prisons (Guerino, Harrison, & Sabol, 2011).
While it is difficult to track national trends over time, there is little question that the number of sex offenders under correctional supervision in the community has increased substantially over the past 20 years.
In fact, sex offender management laws have become so prominent in the United States that the issue was recently identified as the fifth most important area of concern for state legislators (CSOM, 2008).
Such laws typically address issues such as incapacitation, retribution/punishment, deterrence, and rehabilitation (CSOM, 2008).
During the 2007–08 legislative biennium alone, 1,500 bills related to sexual offenders were introduced in 44 states (6 states had no legislative session during this timeframe), with 275 of these bills passing into law (Council of State Governments [CSG], 2010).It also does not present an exhaustive review of the research; it focuses on recent studies deemed to be important for understanding the effectiveness of a given strategy.Finally, its primary focus is on the management of adult sexual offenders.Although some research on juveniles who commit sexual offenses is included, the effectiveness of sex offender management strategies with a juvenile population is addressed in the Juvenile section of this publication.The development and refinement of specialized legal supervision for sexual offenders has largely occurred over the past 25 years.The vast majority of these offenders will be released to communities at some point in the future.