Luminescence dating definition
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The disintegration proceeds at a definite rate characteristic of the particular nucleus; that is, each radioactive isotoperadioactive isotopeor radioisotope,natural or artificially created isotope of a chemical element having an unstable nucleus that decays, emitting alpha, beta, or gamma rays until stability is reached...... However, the time of decay of an individual nucleus is unpredictable.The lifetime of a radioactive substance is not affected in any way by any physical or chemical conditions to which the substance may be subjected.
radiation sickness,harmful effect produced on body tissues by exposure to radioactive substances.Beta radiation (or beta rays) was identified and named by E.Rutherford, who found that it consists of high-speed electrons......Since its radioactivity presents a serious health hazard (see radiation sickness), disposing of such material is a great problem......actinide series,a series of radioactive metallic elements in Group 3 of the periodic table.The neutrino was first postulated in 1930 by Wolfgang Pauli in order to maintain the law of conservation of energy..... The electron is immediately ejected from the nucleus, and the net result is an increase of 1 in the atomic number of the nucleus but no change in the mass number.
The thorium-234 produced above experiences two successive beta decays: Gamma rays have very great penetrating power and are not affected at all by a magnetic field.
The biological action of radiation is not fully understood, but it is believed that a disturbance in cellular activity results from the chemical changes caused by ionization (see.....
radioactive waste,material containing the unusable radioactive byproducts of the scientific, military, and industrial applications of nuclear energy.
Alpha radiation (or alpha rays) was distinguished and named by E. Rutherford in 1909, who found by measuring the charge and mass of alpha particles that they are the nuclei of ordinary..... Alpha decay reduces the atomic weight, or mass number, of a nucleus, while beta and gamma decay leave the mass number unchanged.
Thus, the net effect of alpha radioactivity is to produce nuclei lighter than those of the original radioactive substance.
Archaeologists use the remains of the past to help solve the puzzles of history.