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An obvious flaw exhibited by pie charts is that they cannot show more than a few values without separating the visual encoding (the “slices”) from the data they represent (typically percentages).When slices become too small, pie charts have to rely on colors, textures or arrows so the reader can understand them.
A 3d pie cake, or perspective pie cake, is used to give the chart a 3D look.
If the death count in each month is subdivided by cause of death, it is possible to make multiple comparisons on one diagram, as is seen in the polar area diagram famously developed by Florence Nightingale.
The first known use of polar area diagrams was by André-Michel Guerry, which he called courbes circulaires, in an 1829 paper showing seasonal and daily variation in wind direction over the year and births and deaths by hour of the day. The name "coxcomb" is sometimes used erroneously: this was the name Nightingale used to refer to a book containing the diagrams rather than the diagrams themselves.
The polar area diagram is similar to a usual pie chart, except sectors have equal angles and differ rather in how far each sector extends from the center of the circle.
The polar area diagram is used to plot cyclic phenomena (e.g., counts of deaths by month).
This invention was not widely used at first; The French engineer Charles Joseph Minard was one of the first to use pie charts in 1858, in particular in maps.
Minard's map, 1858 used pie charts to represent the cattle sent from all around France for consumption in Paris (1858).
A chart with one or more sectors separated from the rest of the disk is known as an exploded pie chart.
This effect is used to either highlight a sector, or to highlight smaller segments of the chart with small proportions.
This superimposes a normal pie chart with a modified polar area chart to permit the comparison of two sets of related data.
The base pie chart represents the first data set in the usual way, with different slice sizes.
Léon Lalanne later used a polar diagram to show the frequency of wind directions around compass points in 1843. The circle in the centre represents the root node, with the hierarchy moving outward from the center.