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Heather and reeds might be used as packing around the vases. The base also concentrated deposits from liquids with suspended solid particles, such as olive oil and wines.
A stamp usually was applied to the amphora at a partially dry stage.
Stoppers of perishable materials, which have rarely survived, were used to seal the contents.
Two principal types of amphorae existed: the neck amphora, in which the neck and body meet at a sharp angle; and the one-piece amphora, in which the neck and body form a continuous curve.
Below: Panathenaic prize amphora in the black-figure style, showing the goddess Athena An amphora (Greek: Αμφορέας, English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period.
Amphorae were used in vast numbers for the transport and storage of various products, both liquid and dry, but mostly for wine.
There was perhaps an as yet unidentified native Etruscan word for the vase that pre-empted the adoption of amphora.
, Bennett's AMPHORA, which has a number of scribal variants.
The two spellings are transcriptions of amphiphorēwes (plural) and amphorēwe (dual) in Mycenaean Greek from which it may be seen that the short form prevailed on the mainland.
Homer uses the long form for metrical reasons, and Herodotus has the short form.
In all, approximately 66 distinct types of amphora have been identified.
Further, the term also stands for an ancient Roman unit of measurement for liquids.
The first systematic classification of Roman amphorae types was undertaken by the German scholar Heinrich Dressel.