Carbon dating explanation
Carbon dating explanation - ken dabek dating
Some diamonds, known as harzburgitic, are formed from inorganic carbon originally found deep in the Earth's mantle.
In 1772, the French scientist Antoine Lavoisier used a lens to concentrate the rays of the sun on a diamond in an atmosphere of oxygen, and showed that the only product of the combustion was carbon dioxide, proving that diamond is composed of carbon.Diamonds are brought close to the Earth's surface through deep volcanic eruptions by magma, which cools into igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites.Diamonds can also be produced synthetically in a HPHT method which approximately simulates the conditions in the Earth's mantle.In particular, under oceanic plates the temperature rises more quickly with depth, beyond the range required for diamond formation at the depth required.The correct combination of temperature and pressure is only found in the thick, ancient, and stable parts of continental plates where regions of lithosphere known as cratons exist.Long residence in the cratonic lithosphere allows diamond crystals to grow larger.
Through studies of carbon isotope ratios (similar to the methodology used in carbon dating, except with the stable isotopes C-12 and C-13), it has been shown that the carbon found in diamonds comes from both inorganic and organic sources.
Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms.
In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material.
Most natural diamonds are formed at high temperature and pressure at depths of 140 to 190 kilometers (87 to 118 mi) in the Earth's mantle.
Carbon-containing minerals provide the carbon source, and the growth occurs over periods from 1 billion to 3.3 billion years (25% to 75% of the age of the Earth).
Special gemological techniques have been developed to distinguish natural diamonds, synthetic diamonds, and diamond simulants.