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The head of the whole group was the Rothschild family..." It also states: "Of more recent years, non-Jewish financiers have learned the same cosmopolitan method, and, on the whole, the control is now rather less than more in Jewish hands than formerly." Mayer Rothschild successfully kept the fortune in the family with carefully arranged marriages, often between first- or second-cousins (similar to royal intermarriage).
(At the time, houses were designated by signs with different symbols or colours, not numbers.) The name Rothschild in Yiddish means Red Coat, as in heraldic Coat of arms.
In 1815 alone, the Rothschilds provided £9.8 million (in 1815 currency, about £566 million, €717 million or US9 million today, when using the retail price index, and £6.58 billion, €8,34 billion or US.1 billion when using average earnings) in subsidy loans to Britain's continental allies.
The brothers helped coordinate Rothschild activities across the continent, and the family developed a network of agents, shippers and couriers to transport gold across war-torn Europe.
The Rothschild family is a wealthy family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild, a court Jew to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel in the Free City of Frankfurt, who established his banking business in the 1760s.
who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples.
In about 1906, the Jewish Encyclopedia noted: "The practice initiated by the Rothschilds of having several brothers of a firm establish branches in the different financial centres was followed by other Jewish financiers, like the Bischoffsheims, Pereires, Seligmans, Lazards and others, and these financiers by their integrity and financial skill obtained credit not alone with their Jewish confrères, but with the banking fraternity in general.
By this means, Jewish financiers obtained an increasing share of international finance during the middle and last quarter of the 19th century.In 1818, he arranged a £5 million (equal to £340 million in 2016) loan to the Prussian government, and the issuing of bonds for government loans formed a mainstay of his bank’s business.He gained a position of such power in the City of London that by 1825–26 he was able to supply enough coin to the Bank of England to enable it to avert a market liquidity crisis. They are well-planned, with great cleverness and adroitness in execution – but he is in money and funds what Napoleon was in war." —Baron Baring on Nathan Rothschild"...The Rothschild family Coat of arms also features in the center of its heraldry a red coat of arms featuring a shield.The family's ascent to international prominence began in 1744, with the birth of Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.Changes made by the Rothschilds allowed them to insulate their property from local violence: "Henceforth their real wealth was beyond the reach of the mob, almost beyond the reach of greedy monarchs." Johnson argued that their fortune was generated to the greatest extent by Nathan Mayer Rothschild in London; however, more recent research by Niall Ferguson indicates that greater and equal profits also were realised by the other Rothschild dynasties, including James Mayer de Rothschild in Paris, Carl Mayer von Rothschild in Naples and Amschel Mayer Rothschild in Frankfurt.